Cancer Immunotherapy

Esophageal Cancer

The two most common forms of esophageal cancer are named for the type of cells that become cancerous: squamous cell carcinoma develops from squamous cells in the esophagus and adenocarcinoma develops from epithelial cells in the esophagus (see Gastrointestinal Anatomy).

Immune checkpoint inhibitors are approved for recurrent locally advanced or metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus, with tumors that express PD-L1 as determined by an FDA-approved test, and with disease progression after one or more prior lines of systemic therapy; and for patients with unresectable advanced, recurrent or metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma after treatment with chemotherapy.